The Life Cycle of Black Holes: Singularity

To find out the role black holes played in the evolution of the universe astronomers are trying to recreate this shared history with what amounts to a whole new branch of science. They are using supercomputers to simulate the sweep of cosmic history including that of galaxies like our own. This simulation takes us back to just a few hundred million years after the beginning of the universe gravity drew vast pockets of gas into dense centers they grew hotter and hotter igniting to become the first generation of stars. These stars lived hot and fast and in only a few million years some blew up in powerful supernovae from these stars likely came the first generation of black holes. Cosmologist Tiziana Di Mateo is part of a wider effort to see what marked these early black holes left on the universe. Her computer program simulates the action of gravity on gas the formation of stars, galaxies and black holes. Her goal is to create a virtual universe that evolves like the real one did with black holes and galaxies emerging and growing together.

What Is a Black Hole? | NASA
Imaginery Image of Black Hole swalling a Neutron Star

Our Milky Way galaxy is located in a quiet part of the universe with relatively few other galaxies. Around it moves out across the cosmic void 50 million light years away and we encounter the great virgo cluster filled with thousands of galaxies. Recent telescope surveys show that this region is part of a larger pattern of galaxies resembling a vast spider’s web to get her virtual universe. To look like this Tiziana needs to know what cosmic conditions gave rise to black holes and galaxies in the first place so it’s a beautiful problem because we start from extremely well specified initial conditions. We know the initial condition of the universe and that’s very rare in astrophysics in cosmology. In you know in any branch of physics details of what the universe was like in its earliest times have come courtesy of a breakthrough observatory called Wmap. It found a blotchy pattern in a kind of radiation generated soon after the big bang. Astronomers believe this pattern is the origin of the spider’s web structure. They see in their telescopes it defines the beginning point of Tisiana’s simulation on top of that now we need to put the right physics in order to take these initial conditions evolve them and make the universe the way it looks like today. She sets her virtual universe in motion it covers a region in the shape of a cube. Over a hundred million light years on a side the result an intricate cosmic web with gravity drawing matter into filaments and knots on the largest of scales. In places where filaments come together galaxies and black holes first begin to appear the matter that is coming in from the large scale will also allow the black hole to to grow them cause of this gas is being transported from large scale all the way into the galaxy and the galaxy all the way into the center and therefore feeding and growing these central black holes at a very high rate. In this sequence drawn from her simulation the circles indicate the appearance of black holes within the data. What she finds is that as these black holes gain mass gravity pulls them toward the densest regions where a few grow larger than all the rest how did these chosen few black holes grow so rapidly.

Light from behind a black hole spotted for 1st time, proving Einstein right  | Live Science
Light from behind a black hole spotted for first time, proving Einstein right

The orbiting Chandra x-ray observatory recently turned up evidence at the centers of galaxies back in the time of the early universe these images show its remarkable find actual supermassive black hole pairs beginning what astronomers believe is a dance of death. In most cases their forward momentum simply causes them to go into orbit around each other like a planet around a sun this orbit can go on for billions of years to grow large one. Black hole must draw the other in close enough to swallow it. Albert Einstein showed how they do it, he predicted that when massive bodies accelerate or whip around each other they can stir up the normally smooth fabric of space-time. It’s like a rock hitting a pond some of the energy of the impact is transferred to waves that move outward along the surface. Likewise a Titanic collision of black holes would send waves gravity waves racing across the universe so we have two tornadoes embedded in a third larger tornado and they’re going to come crashing together and we want to know what happens when these tornadoes are not made from whirling air but made from whirling warp space and time.

Black Hole at Center of Milky Way Is Unpredictable and Chaotic – Mysterious  Flares Erupt Every Day
Black Hole at the center of Milky Way galaxy

This simulation shows what happens as two black holes get close they turn space into a turbulent sea of gravity waves. These waves have the effect of carrying energy away from the orbit itself that allows the pair to draw each other in and merge into one. We go back to half of the age of the universe and all these black holes are swallowing large amounts of gas so it’s a fun time and sort of the golden age for the growth of most black holes. The reason why this because most of the large major mergers are occurring in the universe around this time. This simulation shows how a galaxy like our own might have taken shape in a flurry of mergers and collisions. In the beginning gravity drew patches of stars and gas together a new larger patch drew still others in fact the universe is littered with galaxies in the process of ripping each other apart and crashing together. In the turmoil of each new merger another victim is thrust into the jaws of a growing black hole and in the densest regions of the universe. A small percentage of these monsters have been able to grow to a level of size and ferocity we can scarcely imagine and yet amid all the violence are clues to how the universe and even places like Earth came to be what they are.

Also Check out the links below to get updates about Space & Astronomy:

  1. The Life Cycle of Black Holes: Formation
  2. Images Captured by NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope

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